Treaty of Lausanne

According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties signed in Vienna on May 23, 1969:

Article 2-a: “Treaty” means an international agreement concluded between states in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments.

Armenia was not a signatory to The Treaty of Lausanne, signed July 24, 1923, nor could it have been or even consented to stipulations of the treaty as it was not an independent nation at the time. In fact, “Armenia” is not even mentioned at all throughout the entire treaty.

In Section 1, Article 2 of the treaty, the following boundaries are described:
1-Frontier between Turkey and Bulgaria
2-Frontier between Turkey and Greece

In Section 1, Article 3 of the treaty, the following boundaries are described:
1- Frontier between Turkey and Syria
2- Frontier between Turkey and Iraq

The frontier between Turkey and Armenia (Bitlis, Van, Erzrum and Trabizond) is not described in the text because these regions were granted to Armenia on November 22, 1920 by the arbitration award of Woodrow Wilson.

While frontiers with Armenia are not found within the text of the treaty; Bitlis, Van, Erzrum and Trabizond are shown in the map attached to the treaty.

The following is a direct quote from Article 4 of the Treaty of Lausanne:
“The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on the one-in-a-million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case of divergence between the text and the map, the text will prevail.”

The following is a direct quote from Article 16 of the Treaty of Lausanne:
“Turkey hereby renounces all rights and title whatsoever over or respecting the territories situated outside the frontiers laid down in the present Treaty and the islands other than those over which her sovereignty is recognized by the said Treaty, the future of these territories and islands being settled or to be settled by the parties concerned.

The provisions of the present Article do not prejudice any special arrangements arising from neighborly relations which have been or may be concluded between Turkey and any limitrophe countries.”

The Treaty of Lausanne, based on international law, made no determination about the fate of the boundaries of Armenia or any of its territories.

Entire Text of the Treaty of Lausanne